The Effects of Short Term Employment Contract on an Organization: A Case of Kenya Forest Service
Hillary Thomas Wandera
Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2(1), pp. 55-83.

The use of temporary workers is growing rapidly. It has spread across industries—from manufacturing to services and other occupations, including construction workers, registered nurses, bankers, information technologists. The number of companies using temporary workers was on the increase as global competition increased and the urge to cut down on costs of undertaking businesses in order to remain competitive rises. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects arising from use of short term contractual employees by employers / organizations. The study used Kenya Forest Service, which had considerable large numbers of employees on short term contracts, as a case. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of hiring staff on short term employment to an organization. On research methodology, the research was descriptive and utilized a case study approach to achieve the research objectives. The target population was permanent and temporary staff working in Kenya Forest Service. A sample of 51 temporary and permanent staff, representing 30% of all staff working in KFS Head Office was picked for the study. The research utilized both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected through administration of questionnaire while secondary data was collected from in house text books, reports, journals, newspapers and company’s website and publications. The data collected was analyzed using the spread sheets Windows 2007 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

Full Text: PDF

Wandera, Thomas Hillary. (2013). The Effects of Short Term Employment Contract on an Organization: A Case of Kenya Forest Service. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2(1), pp. 55-83.

Adams, J.S. (1963), “Toward an understanding of inequity”, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.

Allan, P. (2002), "The short time workforce: challenges and new directions", American Business Review, No.June, pp.103-10.

Allen, R.S., Sompayrac, J., White, C.S. (2002), "How closely are short term workers screened? Results of a national survey of short term agencies", SAM Advanced Managerial Journal, No.Spring, pp.31-6.

Atkinson, J., Rick, J., Morris, S., Williams, M. (1996), Short term Employment and the Labour Market, Report No. 311, The Institute For Employment Studies, Brighton,

Autor, D.H. (2001), "Why do short term help firms provide free general skills training", The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 116 No.4, pp.1409-48.

Backhaus, K., Tikoo, S. (2004), "Conceptualizing and researching employer branding", Career Development International, Vol. 9 pp.1-5.

Barber, A.E. (1998), Recruiting Employees: Individual and Organizational Perspectives, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA,

Bergstöm, O. (2001), "Externalization of employees: thinking about going somewhere else", International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 12 No.3, pp.373-88.

Biggs, D.M. (2003), “Employment agency workers, their job satisfaction and their influence on permanent workers” unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leicester, Leicester, .

Booth, A. L., Francesconi, M., & Frank, J. (2002). Short term jobs: Stepping stones or dead ends? The Economic Journal, 112(480), F189-F213.

Bourhis, A., Wils, T. (2001), "The fragmentation of traditional employment: challenges raised by the diversity of typical and atypical jobs", Industrial Relations, Vol. 56 No.1, pp.66-91.

Breaugh, J., Starke, M. (2000), "Research on employee recruiting: so many studies, so many remaining questions", Journal of Management, Vol. 26 pp.405-34.

Breaugh, J.A. (1992), Recruitment: Science and Practice, PWS Kent, Boston, MA, .

Breaugh, J.A. (2008), "Employee recruitment: current knowledge and important areas for future research", Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 18 pp.103-18.

Brosnan, P., Horwitz, F., Walsh, P. (1996), "Nonstandard employment in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa: results from a workplace survey".

Brosnan, P., Walsh, P. (1996), "Plus ca change … the Employment Contracts Act and nonstandard employment in New Zealand, 1991-1995", Victoria University, .

Bryman, A and Bell, E (2003), Business Research Methods. New York: Oxford University Press.

Burgess, J., & Connell, J. (2006). Short term work and Human Resource Management: Issues, challenges and responses. Personnel Review, 35(2), 129-140.

Callaghan, P., Hartmann, H. (1991), Short time Work: A Chart Book on Part-time and Short term Employment, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC, .

Callister, P. (1997), Trends in Employee Tenure, Turnover and Work Scheduling Patterns: A Review of the Empirical Research Evidence, Department of Labour, Wellington, New Zealand, .

Cascio, W.F. (1991), Applied Psychology in Personnel Management, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Cheney, G. (1983b), "The rhetoric of identification and the study of organizational communication", Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 69 pp.143-58.

Clarke, S. (2003), "The conshort term workforce implications for organizational safety culture", Personnel Review, Vol. 32 No.1, pp.40-57.

Connelly, C.E., & Gallagher, D.G. (2004). Emerging trends in short time work research. Journal of Management, 30,959-983.

Cooper, D.R and Schindler, P.S. (2003), Business Research Methods (8th edn) McGraw-Hill: New York.

Creswell, John W (2003), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

Davis-Blake, A., Uzzi, B. (1993), "Determinants of employment externalisation a study of short term workers and independent contractors", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 38 No.1, pp.195-223.

Dawis, R. V. (2004). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development: Putting theory and research into practice (pp. 3-23). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

De Cuyper, N., De Jong, J., De Witte, H., Isaksson, K., Rigotti, T., & Schalk, R. (2008). Literature review of theory and research on the psychological impact of short term employment: Towards a conceptual model. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10, 25-51.

De Witte, H. & Näswall, K. (2003). ‘Objective’ vs ‘subjective’ job insecurity: Consequences of short term work for job satisfaction and

organizational commitment in four European countries. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 24, 149-188.

Donkin, R. (2003), “Short term workers’ rights run into sand: it would be a pity if all the momentum towards a more equitable arrangement for labour across Europe were lost with the delay of a vital draft directive”, The Financial Times, 3 July, p. 9. Dooley, D. (2007), Social Research Methods. New Delhi: Prentice Hall.

Druker, J., Croucher, R. (2000), "National collective bargaining and employment flexibility in the Euopean building and civil engineering industries", Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 18 No.4, pp.699-709.

Engellandt, A. & Riphahn, R. T. (2005). Temporary contracts and employee effort. Labour Economics, 12, 281-299.

Feldman, D.C. (1990), “Reconceptualizing the nature and consequences of part-time work”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 15, pp. 103-12.

Feldman, D.C., Doerpinghaus, H.I., Turnley, W.H. (1994), "Managing short term workers: a permanent HRM challenge", Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 23 No.2, pp.49-63.

Felfe, Schmook, Schyns, and Six (2008).Follower characteristics and the perception of Leader Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7(2) 117-140.

Foote, D.A. and Folta, T.B. (2002), “Short term employees as real options”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 12, pp. 579-97.

Foote,D.,(2004),"Short term workers: Managing the problem of unscheduled turnover". Department of Management and Marketing, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA, pp. 964.

Forde, C. (2001), "Short term arrangements: the activities of employment agencies in the UK", Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 15 No.3, pp.631-44.

Golden and Appelbaum. (1992). American Journal of Economics: volume 51, issue 4, pages 473–493 Gono (1997) International Journal of Psychophysiology: Volume 81. issue 1, pg 1-64

Graham,H.T.& Benett.R, P.W.D. Redmond (1995), “Human Resources Management”.(8th edition). London, Pitman Publishing. Pp.136 &155.

Greer, C.R. (2001), “Strategic Human Resource Management” A General Managerial Approach. (2nd edition). South Asia, Pearson. Pg. 84-85.

Harley, B. (1994), "The conditions associated with peripheral employment in Australia: an empirical analysis", Employee Relations, Vol. 16 No.8, pp.19-31.

Henricks, M. (1997), "Squeeze play: accordion management could be music to your ears", Entrepreneur, Vol. 25 No.8, pp.66-9.

Herer, Y.T., Harel, G.G. (1998), "Determining the size of the short term workforce: an inventory modeling approach", Human Resource Planning, Vol. 21 No.2, pp.20-32.

Hippel, C., Mangum, S.L., Greenberger, D.B., Skoglind, J.D., Heneman, R.L. (1997), "Short term employment: can organizations and employees both win?", Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 11 No.1, pp.93-104.

Houseman, S.N. (2001), "Why employers use flexible staffing arrangements: evidence from an establishment survey", Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 55 No.1, pp.149-70.

Jolliffe, L., Farnsworth, R. (2003), "Seasonality in tourism employment: human resource challenges", International Journal of Conshort term Hospitality Management, Vol. 15 No.6, pp.312-6.

Kalleberg, A.L., Reynolds, J., & Marsden, P.V. (2003). Externalizing employment: Flexible staffing arrangements in US organizations. Social Science Research, 32, 525-552.

Kandel, E., Pearson, N.D. (2001), "Flexibility versus commitment in personnel management", Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Vol. 15 No.4, pp.515-56.

Keller, K.L. (2003), "Brand synthesis: the multidimensionality of brand knowledge", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29 pp.596-7.

Kenya Forest Service Strategic plan 2009/10 –2013/2014. Kenya Forest Service Website: Kenya Gazette Supplement, Acts, 2007. Nairobi, 26th October, 2007. The Government Printer, Nairobi.

Koh, W.L., Yer, L.K. (2000), "The impact of employee-organization relationship on short term employee's performance and attitude: testing a Singaporean sample", International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 11 No.2, pp.366-87.

Kothari, C. R. (2004), Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Wiley,. Lips, B. (1998), "Temps and the labor market", Regulation, Vol. 21 No.2, pp.31-9.

Mangan, J. (2000), Workers Without Traditional Employment: An International Study of Non-Standard Work, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK.

Martin, T. N. & Hafer, J. C. (1995). The multiplicative interaction effects of job involvement and organizational commitment on the turnover intentions of full- and part-time employees. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 46, 310-331.

McDonald, D. J. & Makin, P. J. (2000). The psychological contract, organizational commitment and job satisfaction of short term staff. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21, 84-91.

McInnis, K. J., Meyer, J. P., & Feldman, S. (2009). Psychological contracts and their implications for commitment: A featurebased approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 165-180.

McIntyre, Donald and Hagger H. (1996). Mentors in Schools: Developing the Profession of Member Exchange. Journal of Managerial Psychology 23(7): 772-788

Melchionno, R. (1999), “The changing short term work force: managerial, professional, and technical workers in the personnel supply services industry”, Occupational Outlook Quarterly, Vol. 43, pp. 24-5.

Millward, L. J. & Hopkins, L. J. (1998) Psychological contracts, organizational and job commitment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 1530- 1556.

Mugenda, O.M., & Mugenda, A.G. (1999). Research Methods; Quantitative & Qualitative approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.

Mwaura Kimani (2010) “Casual jobs lock young Kenyans in poverty trap” Business Daily November 24 2010

Nardone, T., Veum, J., Yates, J. (1997), "Measuring job security", Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 120 No.6, pp.26-33.

Ngechu. M. (2004), Understanding the research process and methods. An introduction to research methods. Acts Press, Nairobi.

Ngechu. M. (2004), Understanding the research process and methods. An introduction. Starbright Services, Nairobi.

OECD (2002). Employment Outlook. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development : Author.

Orodho, A. (2003). Essentials of education and social science research methods. Nairobi: Masola publishers.

Parker, R.E. (1994), Flesh Peddlers and Warm Bodies: The Short term Help Industry and its Workers, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.

Pearce, J.L. (1993), "Toward an organizational behavior of contract laborers: their psyhological involvement and effects on employee co-workers", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 36 No.5, pp.1082-96.

REC (2002), “Recruitment and employment confederation survey of membership – Appendix 1: agency workers directive – recent surveys and opinions”, unpublished report, Recruitment and Employment Confederation, London.

REC (2003), Annual Recruitment Industry Survey 2002-2003, Recruitment & Employment Confederation and PricewaterhouseCoopers, London.

Reichel, M., & Ramey, M. A. (Eds.). (1987). Conceptual Frameworks for Bibliographic Education: Theory to Practice. Littleton Colorado: Libraries Unlimited Inc.

Risher, H. (1997), "Behind the big picture: employment trends in the 1990s", Compensation & Benefits Review, Vol. 29 No.1, pp.8-12.

Rogers, J.K. (2000), Temps: The Many Faces of the Changing Workplace’, Cornell University Press, New York, NY, .

Rousseau, D. M. & Libuser, C. (1997). Contingent workers in high risk environments. California Management Review, 39(2), 103-123.

Rousseau, D. M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer’s obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 389-400.

Rynes, S.L., Bretz, R.D. Jr, Gerhart, B. (1991), "The importance of recruitment in job choice: a different way of looking", Personnel Psychology, Vol. 44 pp.487-521.

Segal, L.M. (1996), “Flexible employment: composition and trends”, Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 17, pp. 525-42.

Smith, W. (1988), "They serve two masters", Personnel Administrator, No.April, pp.112-6.

Somekh, B. and Cathy, L. (2005), Research Methods in the Social Sciences. London: Sage publications Inc

Taylor, M.S., Collins, C.J. (2000), "Organizational recruitment: enhancing the intersection of theory and practice", in Cooper, C.L., Locke, E.A. (Eds),

Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Linking Theory and Practice, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp.304-34.

Thorsteinson, T. J. (2003). Job attitudes of parttime vs. full-time workers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 151-177.

Tyler, T.R. (1999), "Why people cooperate with organizations: an identity-based perspective", Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 21 pp.201-46.

Valverde, M., Tregaskis, O., & Brewster, C. (2000). Labor flexibility and firm performance. International Advances in Economic Research, 6, 649-661.

Voudouris, I. (2004), "The use of flexible employment arrangements: some new evidence from Greek firms", International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 15 No.1, pp.131-46.

Walliman, Nicholas. (2001), Your Research Project: A Step-by-Step Guide for the First-time Researcher. London: Sage Publications Inc.

Ward, K., Grimshaw, D., Rubery, J., Beynon, H. (2001), "Dilemmas in the management of short term work agency staff", Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 11 No.4, pp.3-21.

Wessel, D. (2001), “Temp workers have lasting effect”, The Wall Street Journal, 1 February.

Wiens-Tuers, B.A. and Hill, E.T. (2002), “Do they bother? Employer training of temporary workers”, Review of Social Economy, Vol. 60, pp. 543-66.

William Reed Ltd. (2003), “Staying on”, Grocer, 8 February, p. 6. Yin, R. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.). London.

Zelaschi, M. C. (2007, April). Invisibilidad de los riesgos laborales. La inestabilidad laboral y sus implicancias en la salud de los trabajadores. Presentation made at the V Congreso Latinoamericano de Sociología del Trabajo: Hacia una Nueva Civilización del Trabajo, Uruguay, Montevideo.

Zijl, M., van den Berg, G. J., & Heyma, A. (2004). Stepping stones for the unemployed: The effect of short term jobs on the duration until regular work (Discussion Paper Nº 1241). Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.


Mr. Hillary Thomas Wandera is a Human Resources Practitioner for over twenty two (22) years of experience where he has been involved in projects management, done Hr consultancy, training and in overall coordinated the Hr Administrative function within various international Organizations such as Kenya Tea Development Agency and Kenya Forest Service. He gained vast experience through liaison with the Kenyan Authorities such as Ministry of Agriculture, Office of the president, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and the Immigration Department, Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, among others. In his experience he has continued to earn excellent understanding of the various Organizations’ Rules and Regulations and issues of goal setting and optimization.

Mr. Wandera has attained an MBA in Strategic Leadership and Management from St. Paul’s University - Kenya, a Bachelors degree in Human Resources Management from Limkokwing University - Malaysia, Advanced Diploma in Business Administration from ABE (UK), Certification in Human Resources Management, Diploma in Information technology from ICM (UK), Certificate in purchasing and supplies – IPS (UK), among others. He is also proficient in Software applications and is fluent in English and Kiswahili. He is a full member of the Institute of Human Resource Management (Kenya).

The vast experience in the field of work has taught him the need to collaboratively work with groups and colleagues to establish team work for effective service delivery. A client-oriented approach and working under pressure with minimal or no supervision has been a requirement in all areas he has worked. This has enabled him to get things done quickly and on time. Tact and diplomacy are a prerequisite for his job and past experience has enabled him to develop qualities required to supervise / handle people and their problems in the most professional way. He understands the applicability and limitations of technology in his day to day operations and has continued to be in the forefront in learning and applying new technology to appropriate tasks.