Floral biology and Implications for Apple Pollination in Semiarid Northeastern Brazil
Victor Magalhães Monteiro, Cláudia Inês da Silva, Alípio Jose de Souza Pacheco Filho, Breno Magalhães Freitas

The ongoing interest in apple production has increased the search for new varieties and growing areas. Varieties with lower requirements concerning chilling and subjection to chemical and/or physical treatments to break down floral dormancy has enabled the expansion of this cultivation in tropical areas. We evaluated the impact of temperature on floral biology of the varieties Julieta (pollen donor) and Princesa (pollen recipient) grown in semiarid Northeastern Brazil. Flowers of the Julieta had lower lifespan than those of the Princesa (Julieta= 2.04 ± 0.197; Princesa2.93 ± 0.274 days; Mann-WhitneyU= 150, p<0.0001). Pollen release in the Julieta occurred from 09:00h on the first day, with peak at 13:00h on the second day. Stigma receptivity in the Princesa began during the “balloon” stage and remained until senescence. There was an average loss of 19.87%± 15.79 in the number of anthers of the Julieta that effectively released pollen compared to the total amount produced by flower, representing a decrease in pollen availability for pollination. The average temperature of 30.21ºC ± 4.18 may have been responsible for the decrease in longevity and the loss of anthers and pollen, thus it is recommended to increase the number of pollen donor plants in semiarid environments.

Full Text: PDF     DOI: 10.15640/jaes.v4n1a6